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La commande 'rsync' permet d'(effectuer des copies de fichiers entre 2 répertoires ou deux partitions/serveurs.

Cette commande s'utilise de la même façon que 'rcp'.

On peut donc commencer par la commande 'rsync *.src server2:/tmp' pour copier les fichiers '.src' dans le /tmp du server2.

Quelques options intéressantes permettent d'utiliser la compression durant le transfert réseau ou de conserver les droits et attributs des fichiers

rsync(1)                  (30 Apr 2004)                  rsync(1)

NAME
rsync - faster, flexible replacement for rcp

SYNOPSIS
rsync [OPTION]... SRC [SRC]... [USER@]HOST:DEST

rsync [OPTION]... [USER@]HOST:SRC DEST

rsync [OPTION]... SRC [SRC]... DEST

rsync [OPTION]... [USER@]HOST::SRC [DEST]

rsync [OPTION]... SRC [SRC]... [USER@]HOST::DEST

rsync [OPTION]... rsync://[USER@]HOST[:PORT]/SRC [DEST]

rsync [OPTION]... SRC [SRC]...
rsync://[USER@]HOST[:PORT]/DEST

DESCRIPTION
rsync is a program that behaves in much the same way that
rcp does, but has many more options and uses the rsync
remote-update protocol to greatly speed up file transfers
when the destination file already exists.

The rsync remote-update protocol allows rsync to transfer
just the differences between two sets of files across the
network connection, using an efficient checksum-search
algorithm described in the technical report that accompanies
this package.

Some of the additional features of rsync are:

o    support for copying links, devices, owners, groups and
permissions

o    exclude and exclude-from options similar to GNU tar

o    a CVS exclude mode for ignoring the same files that CVS
would ignore

o    can use any transparent remote shell, including ssh or
rsh

o    does not require root privileges

o    pipelining of file transfers to minimize latency costs

o    support for anonymous or authenticated rsync servers
(ideal for mirroring)

GENERAL

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There are eight different ways of using rsync. They are:

o    for copying local files. This is invoked when neither
source nor destination path contains a : separator

o    for copying from the local machine to a remote machine
using a remote shell program as the transport (such as
ssh or rsh). This is invoked when the destination path
contains a single : separator.

o    for copying from a remote machine to the local machine
using a remote shell program. This is invoked when the
source contains a : separator.

o    for copying from a remote rsync server to the local
machine. This is invoked when the source path contains
a ::  separator or an rsync:// URL.

o    for copying from the local machine to a remote rsync
server. This is invoked when the destination path
contains a ::  separator or an rsync:// URL.

o    for copying from a remote machine using a remote shell
program as the transport, using rsync server on the
remote machine.  This is invoked when the source path
contains a ::  separator and the --rsh=COMMAND (aka "-e
COMMAND") option is also provided.

o    for copying from the local machine to a remote machine
using a remote shell program as the transport, using
rsync server on the remote machine.  This is invoked
when the destination path contains a :: separator and
the --rsh=COMMAND option is also provided.

o    for listing files on a remote machine. This is done the
same way as rsync transfers except that you leave off
the local destination.

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Note that in all cases (other than listing) at least one of
the source and destination paths must be local.

SETUP
See the file README for installation instructions.

Once installed, you can use rsync to any machine that you
can access via a remote shell (as well as some that you can
access using the rsync daemon-mode protocol).  For remote
transfers, a modern rsync uses ssh for its communications,
but it may have been configured to use a different remote
shell by default, such as rsh or remsh.

You can also specify any remote shell you like, either by
using the -e command line option, or by setting the
RSYNC_RSH environment variable.

One common substitute is to use ssh, which offers a high
degree of security.

Note that rsync must be installed on both the source and
destination machines.

USAGE
You use rsync in the same way you use rcp. You must specify
a source and a destination, one of which may be remote.

Perhaps the best way to explain the syntax is with some
examples:

rsync *.c foo:src/

This would transfer all files matching the pattern *.c from
the current directory to the directory src on the machine
foo. If any of the files already exist on the remote system
then the rsync remote-update protocol is used to update the
file by sending only the differences. See the tech report
for details.

rsync -avz foo:src/bar /data/tmp

This would recursively transfer all files from the directory
src/bar on the machine foo into the /data/tmp/bar directory
on the local machine. The files are transferred in "archive"
mode, which ensures that symbolic links, devices,
attributes, permissions, ownerships, etc. are preserved in
the transfer.  Additionally, compression will be used to
reduce the size of data portions of the transfer.


rsync -avz foo:src/bar/ /data/tmp

A trailing slash on the source changes this behavior to

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avoid creating an additional directory level at the
destination.  You can think of a trailing / on a source as
meaning "copy the contents of this directory" as opposed to
"copy the directory by name", but in both cases the
attributes of the containing directory are transferred to
the containing directory on the destination.  In other
words, each of the following commands copies the files in
the same way, including their setting of the attributes of
/dest/foo:


rsync -avz /src/foo /dest
rsync -avz /src/foo/ /dest/foo

You can also use rsync in local-only mode, where both the
source and destination don't have a ':' in the name. In this
case it behaves like an improved copy command.

rsync somehost.mydomain.com::

This would list all the anonymous rsync modules available on
the host somehost.mydomain.com.  (See the following section
for more details.)

CONNECTING TO AN RSYNC SERVER
It is also possible to use rsync without a remote shell as
the transport. In this case you will connect to a remote
rsync server running on TCP port 873.

You may establish the connection via a web proxy by setting
the environment variable RSYNC_PROXY to a hostname:port pair
pointing to your web proxy.  Note that your web proxy's
configuration must support proxy connections to port 873.

Using rsync in this way is the same as using it with a
remote shell except that:

o    you use a double colon :: instead of a single colon to
separate the hostname from the path or an rsync:// URL.

o    the remote server may print a message of the day when
you connect.

o    if you specify no path name on the remote server then
the list of accessible paths on the server will be
shown.

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o    if you specify no local destination then a listing of
the specified files on the remote server is provided.

Some paths on the remote server may require authentication.
If so then you will receive a password prompt when you
connect. You can avoid the password prompt by setting the
environment variable RSYNC_PASSWORD to the password you want
to use or using the --password-file option. This may be
useful when scripting rsync.

WARNING: On some systems environment variables are visible
to all users. On those systems using --password-file is
recommended.

CONNECTING TO AN RSYNC SERVER OVER A REMOTE SHELL PROGRAM
It is sometimes useful to be able to set up file transfers
using rsync server capabilities on the remote machine, while
still using ssh or rsh for transport.  This is especially
useful when you want to connect to a remote machine via ssh
(for encryption or to get through a firewall), but you still
want to have access to the rsync server features (see
RUNNING AN RSYNC SERVER OVER A REMOTE SHELL PROGRAM, below).

From the user's perspective, using rsync in this way is the
same as using it to connect to an rsync server, except that
you must explicitly set the remote shell program on the
command line with --rsh=COMMAND.  (Setting RSYNC_RSH in the
environment will not turn on this functionality.)

In order to distinguish between the remote-shell user and
the rsync server user, you can use '-l user' on your
remote-shell command:

rsync -av --rsh="ssh -l ssh-user" rsync-
user@host::module[/path] local-path

The "ssh-user" will be used at the ssh level; the "rsync-
user" will be used to check against the rsyncd.conf on the
remote host.

RUNNING AN RSYNC SERVER
An rsync server is configured using a configuration file.
Please see the rsyncd.conf(5) man page for more information.
By default the configuration file is called
/etc/rsyncd.conf, unless rsync is running over a remote
shell program and is not running as root; in that case, the
default name is rsyncd.conf in the current directory on the
remote computer (typically $HOME).

RUNNING AN RSYNC SERVER OVER A REMOTE SHELL PROGRAM
See the rsyncd.conf(5) man page for full information on the
rsync server configuration file.

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Several configuration options will not be available unless
the remote user is root (e.g. chroot, setuid/setgid, etc.).
There is no need to configure inetd or the services map to
include the rsync server port if you run an rsync server
only via a remote shell program.

To run an rsync server out of a single-use ssh key, see this
section in the rsyncd.conf(5) man page.

EXAMPLES
Here are some examples of how I use rsync.

To backup my wife's home directory, which consists of large
MS Word files and mail folders, I use a cron job that runs

rsync -Cavz . arvidsjaur:backup

each night over a PPP connection to a duplicate directory on
my machine "arvidsjaur".

To synchronize my samba source trees I use the following
Makefile targets:

get:
rsync -avuzb --exclude '*~' samba:samba/ .

put:
rsync -Cavuzb . samba:samba/

sync: get put

this allows me to sync with a CVS directory at the other end
of the connection. I then do cvs operations on the remote
machine, which saves a lot of time as the remote cvs
protocol isn't very efficient.

I mirror a directory between my "old" and "new" ftp sites
with the command

rsync -az -e ssh --delete ~ftp/pub/samba/
nimbus:"~ftp/pub/tridge/samba"

this is launched from cron every few hours.

OPTIONS SUMMARY
Here is a short summary of the options available in rsync.
Please refer to the detailed description below for a
complete description.

-v, --verbose               increase verbosity

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-q, --quiet                 decrease verbosity
-c, --checksum              always checksum
-a, --archive               archive mode, equivalent to -rlptgoD
-r, --recursive             recurse into directories
-R, --relative              use relative path names
--no-relative           turn off --relative
--no-implied-dirs       don't send implied dirs with -R
-b, --backup                make backups (see --suffix & --backup-dir)
--backup-dir            make backups into this directory
--suffix=SUFFIX         backup suffix (default ~ w/o --backup-dir)
-u, --update                update only (don't overwrite newer files)
-l, --links                 copy symlinks as symlinks
-L, --copy-links            copy the referent of all symlinks
--copy-unsafe-links     copy the referent of "unsafe" symlinks
--safe-links            ignore "unsafe" symlinks
-H, --hard-links            preserve hard links
-p, --perms                 preserve permissions
-o, --owner                 preserve owner (root only)
-g, --group                 preserve group
-D, --devices               preserve devices (root only)
-t, --times                 preserve times
-S, --sparse                handle sparse files efficiently
-n, --dry-run               show what would have been transferred
-W, --whole-file            copy whole files, no incremental checks
--no-whole-file         turn off --whole-file
-x, --one-file-system       don't cross filesystem boundaries
-B, --block-size=SIZE       checksum blocking size (default 700)
-e, --rsh=COMMAND           specify the remote shell
--rsync-path=PATH       specify path to rsync on the remote machine
--existing              only update files that already exist
--ignore-existing       ignore files that already exist on receiver
--delete                delete files that don't exist on sender
--delete-excluded       also delete excluded files on receiver
--delete-after          receiver deletes after transfer, not before
--ignore-errors         delete even if there are I/O errors
--max-delete=NUM        don't delete more than NUM files
--partial               keep partially transferred files
--force                 force deletion of dirs even if not empty
--numeric-ids           don't map uid/gid values by user/group name
--timeout=TIME          set I/O timeout in seconds
-I, --ignore-times          turn off mod time & file size quick check
--size-only             ignore mod time for quick check (use size)
--modify-window=NUM     compare mod times with reduced accuracy
-T  --temp-dir=DIR          create temporary files in directory DIR
--compare-dest=DIR      also compare received files relative to DIR
--link-dest=DIR         create hardlinks to DIR for unchanged files
-P                          equivalent to --partial --progress
-z, --compress              compress file data
-C, --cvs-exclude           auto ignore files in the same way CVS does
--exclude=PATTERN       exclude files matching PATTERN
--exclude-from=FILE     exclude patterns listed in FILE
--include=PATTERN       don't exclude files matching PATTERN

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--include-from=FILE     don't exclude patterns listed in FILE
--files-from=FILE       read FILE for list of source-file names
-0  --from0                 all file lists are delimited by nulls
--version               print version number
--daemon                run as an rsync daemon
--no-detach             do not detach from the parent
--address=ADDRESS       bind to the specified address
--config=FILE           specify alternate rsyncd.conf file
--port=PORT             specify alternate rsyncd port number
--blocking-io           use blocking I/O for the remote shell
--no-blocking-io        turn off --blocking-io
--stats                 give some file transfer stats
--progress              show progress during transfer
--log-format=FORMAT     log file transfers using specified format
--password-file=FILE    get password from FILE
--bwlimit=KBPS          limit I/O bandwidth, KBytes per second
--write-batch=PREFIX    write batch fileset starting with PREFIX
--read-batch=PREFIX     read batch fileset starting with PREFIX
-h, --help                  show this help screen

OPTIONS
rsync uses the GNU long options package. Many of the command
line options have two variants, one short and one long.
These are shown below, separated by commas. Some options
only have a long variant.  The '=' for options that take a
parameter is optional; whitespace can be used instead.

-h, --help
Print a short help page describing the options
available in rsync

--version
print the rsync version number and exit

-v, --verbose
This option increases the amount of information you are
given during the transfer.  By default, rsync works
silently. A single -v will give you information about
what files are being transferred and a brief summary at
the end. Two -v flags will give you information on what
files are being skipped and slightly more information
at the end. More than two -v flags should only be used
if you are debugging rsync.

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-q, --quiet
This option decreases the amount of information you are
given during the transfer, notably suppressing
information messages from the remote server. This flag
is useful when invoking rsync from cron.

-I, --ignore-times
Normally rsync will skip any files that are already the
same size and have the same modification time-stamp.
This option turns off this "quick check" behavior.

--size-only
Normally rsync will not transfer any files that are
already the same size and have the same modification
time-stamp. With the --size-only option, files will not
be transferred if they have the same size, regardless
of timestamp. This is useful when starting to use rsync
after using another mirroring system which may not
preserve timestamps exactly.

--modify-window
When comparing two timestamps rsync treats the
timestamps as being equal if they are within the value
of modify_window. This is normally zero, but you may
find it useful to set this to a larger value in some
situations. In particular, when transferring to Windows
FAT filesystems which cannot represent times with a 1
second resolution --modify-window=1 is useful.

-c, --checksum
This forces the sender to checksum all files using a
128-bit MD4 checksum before transfer. The checksum is
then explicitly checked on the receiver and any files
of the same name which already exist and have the same
checksum and size on the receiver are not transferred.
This option can be quite slow.

-a, --archive
This is equivalent to -rlptgoD. It is a quick way of
saying you want recursion and want to preserve almost

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everything.

Note however that -a does not preserve hardlinks,
because finding multiply-linked files is expensive.
You must separately specify -H.

-r, --recursive
This tells rsync to copy directories recursively. If
you don't specify this then rsync won't copy
directories at all.

-R, --relative
Use relative paths. This means that the full path names
specified on the command line are sent to the server
rather than just the last parts of the filenames. This
is particularly useful when you want to send several
different directories at the same time. For example, if
you used the command

rsync foo/bar/foo.c remote:/tmp/

then this would create a file called foo.c in /tmp/ on
the remote machine. If instead you used

rsync -R foo/bar/foo.c remote:/tmp/

then a file called /tmp/foo/bar/foo.c would be created
on the remote machine -- the full path name is
preserved.

--no-relative
Turn off the --relative option.  This is only needed if
you want to use --files-from without its implied --
relative file processing.

--no-implied-dirs

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When combined with the --relative option, the implied
directories in each path are not explicitly duplicated
as part of the transfer.  This makes the transfer more
optimal and also allows the two sides to have non-
matching symlinks in the implied part of the path.  For
instance, if you transfer the file "/path/foo/file"
with -R, the default is for rsync to ensure that
"/path" and "/path/foo" on the destination exactly
match the directories/symlinks of the source.  Using
the --no-implied-dirs option would omit both of these
implied dirs, which means that if "/path" was a real
directory on one machine and a symlink of the other
machine, rsync would not try to change this.

-b, --backup
With this option, preexisting destination files are
renamed as each file is transferred or deleted.  You
can control where the backup file goes and what (if
any) suffix gets appended using the --backup-dir and
--suffix options.

--backup-dir=DIR
In combination with the --backup option, this tells
rsync to store all backups in the specified directory.
This is very useful for incremental backups.  You can
additionally specify a backup suffix using the --suffix
option (otherwise the files backed up in the specified
directory will keep their original filenames).  If DIR
is a relative path, it is relative to the destination
directory (which changes in a recursive transfer).

--suffix=SUFFIX
This option allows you to override the default backup
suffix used with the --backup (-b) option. The default
suffix is a ~ if no --backup-dir was specified,
otherwise it is an empty string.

-u, --update
This forces rsync to skip any files for which the
destination file already exists and has a date later
than the source file.

In the currently implementation, a difference of file
format is always considered to be important enough for

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an update, no matter what date is on the objects.  In
other words, if the source has a directory or a symlink
where the destination has a file, the transfer would
occur regardless of the timestamps.  This might change
in the future (feel free to comment on this on the
mailing list if you have an opinion).

-l, --links
When symlinks are encountered, recreate the symlink on
the destination.

-L, --copy-links
When symlinks are encountered, the file that they point
to (the referent) is copied, rather than the symlink.

--copy-unsafe-links
This tells rsync to copy the referent of symbolic links
that point outside the copied tree.  Absolute symlinks
are also treated like ordinary files, and so are any
symlinks in the source path itself when --relative is
used.

--safe-links
This tells rsync to ignore any symbolic links which
point outside the copied tree. All absolute symlinks
are also ignored. Using this option in conjunction with
--relative may give unexpected results.

-H, --hard-links
This tells rsync to recreate hard  links  on the
remote system  to  be the same as the local system.
Without this option hard links are treated like regular
files.

Note that rsync can only detect hard links if both
parts of the link are in the list of files being sent.

This option can be quite slow, so only use it if you
need it.

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-W, --whole-file
With this option the incremental rsync algorithm is not
used and the whole file is sent as-is instead.  The
transfer may be faster if this option is used when the
bandwidth between the source and target machines is
higher than the bandwidth to disk (especially when the
"disk" is actually a networked filesystem).  This is
the default when both the source and target are on the
local machine.

--no-whole-file
Turn off --whole-file, for use when it is the default.

-p, --perms
This option causes rsync to set the destination
permissions to be the same as the source permissions.

Without this option, each new file gets its permissions
set based on the source file's permissions and the
umask at the receiving end, while all other files
(including updated files) retain their existing
permissions (which is the same behavior as other file-
copy utilities, such as cp).

-o, --owner
This option causes rsync to set the owner of the
destination file to be the same as the source file.  On
most systems, only the super-user can set file
ownership.  By default, the preservation is done by
name, but may fall back to using the ID number in some
circumstances.  See the --numeric-ids option for a full
discussion.

-g, --group
This option causes rsync to set the group of the
destination file to be the same as the source file.  If
the receiving program is not running as the super-user,
only groups that the receiver is a member of will be
preserved.  By default, the preservation is done by
name, but may fall back to using the ID number in some
circumstances.  See the --numeric-ids option for a full
discussion.

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-D, --devices
This option causes rsync to transfer character and
block device information to the remote system to
recreate these devices. This option is only available
to the super-user.

-t, --times
This tells rsync to transfer modification times along
with the files and update them on the remote system.
Note that if this option is not used, the optimization
that excludes files that have not been modified cannot
be effective; in other words, a missing -t or -a will
cause the next transfer to behave as if it used -I, and
all files will have their checksums compared and show
up in log messages even if they haven't changed.

-n, --dry-run
This tells rsync to not do any file transfers, instead
it will just report the actions it would have taken.

-S, --sparse
Try to handle sparse files efficiently so they take up
less space on the destination.

NOTE: Don't use this option when the destination is a
Solaris "tmpfs" filesystem. It doesn't seem to handle
seeks over null regions correctly and ends up
corrupting the files.

-x, --one-file-system
This tells rsync not to cross filesystem boundaries
when recursing.  This  is useful for transferring the
contents of only one filesystem.

--existing
This tells rsync not to create any new files - only
update files that already exist on the destination.

--ignore-existing
This tells rsync not to update files that already exist

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on the destination.

--max-delete=NUM
This tells rsync not to delete more than NUM files or
directories. This is useful when mirroring very large
trees to prevent disasters.

--delete
This tells rsync to delete any files on the receiving
side that aren't on the sending side.   Files that are
excluded from transfer are excluded from being deleted
unless you use --delete-excluded.

This option has no effect if directory recursion is not
selected.

This option can be dangerous if used incorrectly!  It
is a very good idea to run first using the dry run
option (-n) to see what files would be deleted to make
sure important files aren't listed.

If the sending side detects any I/O errors then the
deletion of any files at the destination will be
automatically disabled. This is to prevent temporary
filesystem failures (such as NFS errors) on the sending
side causing a massive deletion of files on the
destination.  You can override this with the --ignore-
errors option.

--delete-excluded
In addition to deleting the files on the receiving side
that are not on the sending side, this tells rsync to
also delete any files on the receiving side that are
excluded (see --exclude).  Implies --delete.

--delete-after
By default rsync does file deletions on the receiving
side before transferring files to try to ensure that
there is sufficient space on the receiving filesystem.
If you want to delete after transferring, use the --
delete-after switch. Implies --delete.

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--ignore-errors
Tells --delete to go ahead and delete files even when
there are I/O errors.

--force
This options tells rsync to delete directories even if
they are not empty when they are to be replaced by
non-directories.  This is only relevant without --
delete because deletions are now done depth-first.
Requires the --recursive option (which is implied by
-a) to have any effect.

-B , --block-size=BLOCKSIZE
This controls the block size used in the rsync
algorithm. See the technical report for details.

-e, --rsh=COMMAND
This option allows you to choose an alternative remote
shell program to use for communication between the
local and remote copies of rsync. Typically, rsync is
configured to use ssh by default, but you may prefer to
use rsh on a local network.

If this option is used with [user@]host::module/path,
then the remote shell COMMAND will be used to run an
rsync server on the remote host, and all data will be
transmitted through that remote shell connection,
rather than through a direct socket connection to a
running rsync server on the remote host.  See the
section "CONNECTING TO AN RSYNC SERVER OVER A REMOTE
SHELL PROGRAM" above.

Command-line arguments are permitted in COMMAND
provided that COMMAND is presented to rsync as a single
argument.  For example:

-e "ssh -p 2234"

(Note that ssh users can alternately customize site-
specific connect options in their .ssh/config file.)

You can also choose the remote shell program using the
RSYNC_RSH environment variable, which accepts the same
range of values as -e.

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See also the --blocking-io option which is affected by
this option.

--rsync-path=PATH
Use this to specify the path to the copy of rsync on
the remote machine. Useful when it's not in your path.
Note that this is the full path to the binary, not just
the directory that the binary is in.

-C, --cvs-exclude
This is a useful shorthand for excluding a broad range
of files that you often don't want to transfer between
systems. It uses the same algorithm that CVS uses to
determine if a file should be ignored.

The exclude list is initialized to:

RCS SCCS CVS CVS.adm RCSLOG cvslog.* tags TAGS
.make.state .nse_depinfo *~ #* .#* ,* _$* *$ *.old
*.bak *.BAK *.orig *.rej .del-* *.a *.olb *.o *.obj
*.so *.exe *.Z *.elc *.ln core .svn/

then files listed in a $HOME/.cvsignore are added to
the list and any files listed in the CVSIGNORE
environment variable (all cvsignore names are delimited
by whitespace).

Finally, any file is ignored if it is in the same
directory as a .cvsignore file and matches one of the
patterns listed therein.  See the cvs(1) manual for
more information.

--exclude=PATTERN
This option allows you to selectively exclude certain
files from the list of files to be transferred. This is
most useful in combination with a recursive transfer.

You may use as many --exclude options on the command
line as you like to build up the list of files to
exclude.

See the EXCLUDE PATTERNS section for detailed
information on this option.

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--exclude-from=FILE
This option is similar to the --exclude option, but
instead it adds all exclude patterns listed in the file
FILE to the exclude list.  Blank lines in FILE and
lines starting with ';' or '#' are ignored.  If FILE is
- the list will be read from standard input.

--include=PATTERN
This option tells rsync to not exclude the specified
pattern of filenames. This is useful as it allows you
to build up quite complex exclude/include rules.

See the EXCLUDE PATTERNS section for detailed
information on this option.

--include-from=FILE
This specifies a list of include patterns from a file.
If FILE is - the list will be read from standard input.

--files-from=FILE
Using this option allows you to specify the exact list
of files to transfer (as read from the specified FILE
or "-" for stdin).  It also tweaks the default behavior
of rsync to make transferring just the specified files
and directories easier.  For instance, the --relative
option is enabled by default when this option is used
(use --no-relative if you want to turn that off), all
directories specified in the list are created on the
destination (rather than being noisily skipped without
-r), and the -a (--archive) option's behavior does not
imply -r (--recursive) -- specify it explicitly, if you
want it.

The file names that are read from the FILE are all
relative to the source dir -- any leading slashes are
removed and no ".." references are allowed to go higher
than the source dir.  For example, take this command:

rsync -a --files-from=/tmp/foo /usr remote:/backup

If /tmp/foo contains the string "bin" (or even "/bin"),
the /usr/bin directory will be created as /backup/bin
on the remote host (but the contents of the /usr/bin
dir would not be sent unless you specified -r or the
names were explicitly listed in /tmp/foo).  Also keep

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in mind that the effect of the (enabled by default) --
relative option is to duplicate only the path info that
is read from the file -- it does not force the
duplication of the source-spec path (/usr in this
case).

In addition, the --files-from file can be read from the
remote host instead of the local host if you specify a
"host:" in front of the file (the host must match one
end of the transfer).  As a short-cut, you can specify
just a prefix of ":" to mean "use the remote end of the
transfer".  For example:

rsync -a --files-from=:/path/file-list src:/ /tmp/copy

This would copy all the files specified in the
/path/file-list file that was located on the remote
"src" host.

-0, --from0
This tells rsync that the filenames it reads from a
file are terminated by a null ('\0') character, not a
NL, CR, or CR+LF.  This affects --exclude-from, --
include-from, and --files-from.  It does not affect --
cvs-exclude (since all names read from a .cvsignore
file are split on whitespace).

-T, --temp-dir=DIR
This option instructs rsync to use DIR as a scratch
directory when creating temporary copies of the files
transferred on the receiving side.  The default
behavior is to create the temporary files in the
receiving directory.

--compare-dest=DIR
This option instructs rsync to use DIR on the
destination machine as an additional directory to
compare destination files against when doing transfers
if the files are missing in the destination directory.
This is useful for doing transfers to a new destination
while leaving existing files intact, and then doing a
flash-cutover when all files have been successfully
transferred (for example by moving directories around
and removing the old directory, although this skips
files that haven't changed; see also --link-dest).

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This option increases the usefulness of --partial
because partially transferred files will remain in the
new temporary destination until they have a chance to
be completed.  If DIR is a relative path, it is
relative to the destination directory (which changes in
a recursive transfer).

--link-dest=DIR
This option behaves like --compare-dest but also will
create hard links from DIR to the destination directory
for unchanged files.  Files with changed ownership or
permissions will not be linked.  Like --compare-dest if
DIR is a relative path, it is relative to the
destination directory (which changes in a recursive
transfer).  An example:

rsync -av --link-dest=$PWD/prior_dir host:src_dir/ new_dir/

-z, --compress
With this option, rsync compresses any data from the
files that it sends to the destination machine.  This
option is useful on slow connections.  The compression
method used is the same method that gzip uses.

Note this this option typically achieves better
compression ratios that can be achieved by using a
compressing remote shell, or a compressing transport,
as it takes advantage of the implicit information sent
for matching data blocks.

--numeric-ids
With this option rsync will transfer numeric group and
user IDs rather than using user and group names and
mapping them at both ends.

By default rsync will use the username and groupname to
determine what ownership to give files. The special uid
0 and the special group 0 are never mapped via
user/group names even if the --numeric-ids option is
not specified.

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If a user or group has no name on the source system or
it has no match on the destination system, then the
numeric ID from the source system is used instead.  See
also the comments on the "use chroot" setting in the
rsyncd.conf manpage for information on how the chroot
setting affects rsync's ability to look up the names of
the users and groups and what you can do about it.

--timeout=TIMEOUT
This option allows you to set a maximum I/O timeout in
seconds. If no data is transferred for the specified
time then rsync will exit. The default is 0, which
means no timeout.

--daemon
This tells rsync that it is to run as a daemon.  The
daemon may be accessed using the host::module or
rsync://host/module/ syntax.

If standard input is a socket then rsync will assume
that it is being run via inetd, otherwise it will
detach from the current terminal and become a
background daemon.  The daemon will read the config
file (rsyncd.conf) on each connect made by a client and
respond to requests accordingly.  See the
rsyncd.conf(5) man page for more details.

--no-detach
When running as a daemon, this option instructs rsync
to not detach itself and become a background process.
This option is required when running as a service on
Cygwin, and may also be useful when rsync is supervised
by a program such as daemontools or AIX's System
Resource Controller.  --no-detach is also recommended
when rsync is run under a debugger.  This option has no
effect if rsync is run from inetd or sshd.

--address
By default rsync will bind to the wildcard address when
run as a daemon with the --daemon option or when
connecting to a rsync server. The --address option
allows you to specify a specific IP address (or
hostname) to bind to. This makes virtual hosting
possible in conjunction with the --config option.

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--config=FILE
This specifies an alternate config file than the
default.  This is only relevant when --daemon is
specified. The default is /etc/rsyncd.conf unless the
daemon is running over a remote shell program and the
remote user is not root; in that case the default is
rsyncd.conf in the current directory (typically $HOME).

--port=PORT
This specifies an alternate TCP port number to use
rather than the default port 873.

--blocking-io
This tells rsync to use blocking I/O when launching a
remote shell transport.  If the remote shell is either
rsh or remsh, rsync defaults to using blocking I/O,
otherwise it defaults to using non-blocking I/O.  (Note
that ssh prefers non-blocking I/O.)

--no-blocking-io
Turn off --blocking-io, for use when it is the default.

--log-format=FORMAT
This allows you to specify exactly what the rsync
client logs to stdout on a per-file basis. The log
format is specified using the same format conventions
as the log format option in rsyncd.conf.

--stats
This tells rsync to print a verbose set of statistics
on the file transfer, allowing you to tell how
effective the rsync algorithm is for your data.

--partial
By default, rsync will delete any partially transferred
file if the transfer is interrupted. In some
circumstances it is more desirable to keep partially
transferred files. Using the --partial option tells

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rsync to keep the partial file which should make a
subsequent transfer of the rest of the file much
faster.

--progress
This option tells rsync to print information showing
the progress of the transfer. This gives a bored user
something to watch.  Implies --verbose without
incrementing verbosity.

When the file is transferring, the data looks like
this:

782448  63%  110.64kB/s    0:00:04

This tells you the current file size, the percentage of
the transfer that is complete, the current calculated
file-completion rate (including both data over the wire
and data being matched locally), and the estimated time
remaining in this transfer.

After the a file is complete, it the data looks like
this:

1238099 100%  146.38kB/s    0:00:08  (5, 57.1% of 396)

This tells you the final file size, that it's 100%
complete, the final transfer rate for the file, the
amount of elapsed time it took to transfer the file,
and the addition of a total-transfer summary in
parentheses.  These additional numbers tell you how
many files have been updated, and what percent of the
total number of files has been scanned.

-P   The -P option is equivalent to --partial --progress. I
found myself typing that combination quite often so I

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created an option to make it easier.

--password-file
This option allows you to provide a password in a file
for accessing a remote rsync server. Note that this
option is only useful when accessing an rsync server
using the built in transport, not when using a remote
shell as the transport. The file must not be world
readable. It should contain just the password as a
single line.

--bwlimit=KBPS
This option allows you to specify a maximum transfer
rate in kilobytes per second. This option is most
effective when using rsync with large files (several
megabytes and up). Due to the nature of rsync
transfers, blocks of data are sent, then if rsync
determines the transfer was too fast, it will wait
before sending the next data block. The result is an
average transfer rate equaling the specified limit. A
value of zero specifies no limit.

--write-batch=PREFIX
Generate a set of files that can be transferred as a
batch update. Each filename in the set starts with
PREFIX. See the "BATCH MODE" section for details.

--read-batch=PREFIX
Apply a previously generated change batch, using the
fileset whose filenames start with PREFIX. See the
"BATCH MODE" section for details.

EXCLUDE PATTERNS
The exclude and include patterns specified to rsync allow
for flexible selection of which files to transfer and which
files to skip.

Rsync builds an ordered list of include/exclude options as
specified on the command line. Rsync checks each file and
directory name against each exclude/include pattern in turn.
The first matching pattern is acted on. If it is an exclude
pattern, then that file is skipped. If it is an include

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pattern then that filename is not skipped. If no matching
include/exclude pattern is found then the filename is not
skipped.

The filenames matched against the exclude/include patterns
are relative to the "root of the transfer".  If you think of
the transfer as a subtree of names that are being sent from
sender to receiver, the root is where the tree starts to be
duplicated in the destination directory.  This root governs
where patterns that start with a / match (see below).

Because the matching is relative to the transfer-root,
changing the trailing slash on a source path or changing
your use of the --relative option affects the path you need
to use in your matching (in addition to changing how much of
the file tree is duplicated on the destination system).  The
following examples demonstrate this.

Let's say that we want to match two source files, one with
an absolute path of "/home/me/foo/bar", and one with a path
of "/home/you/bar/baz".  Here is how the various command
choices differ for a 2-source transfer:

Example cmd: rsync -a /home/me /home/you /dest
+/- pattern: /me/foo/bar
+/- pattern: /you/bar/baz
Target file: /dest/me/foo/bar
Target file: /dest/you/bar/baz

Example cmd: rsync -a /home/me/ /home/you/ /dest
+/- pattern: /foo/bar               (note missing "me")
+/- pattern: /bar/baz               (note missing "you")
Target file: /dest/foo/bar
Target file: /dest/bar/baz

Example cmd: rsync -a --relative /home/me/ /home/you /dest
+/- pattern: /home/me/foo/bar       (note full path)
+/- pattern: /home/you/bar/baz      (ditto)
Target file: /dest/home/me/foo/bar
Target file: /dest/home/you/bar/baz

Example cmd: cd /home; rsync -a --relative me/foo you/ /dest
+/- pattern: /me/foo/bar      (starts at specified path)
+/- pattern: /you/bar/baz     (ditto)
Target file: /dest/me/foo/bar
Target file: /dest/you/bar/baz

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The easiest way to see what name you should include/exclude
is to just look at the output when using --verbose and put a
/ in front of the name (use the --dry-run option if you're
not yet ready to copy any files).

Note that, when using the --recursive (-r) option (which is
implied by -a), every subcomponent of every path is visited
from the top down, so include/exclude patterns get applied
recursively to each subcomponent.  The exclude patterns
actually short-circuit the directory traversal stage when
rsync finds the files to send.  If a pattern excludes a
particular parent directory, it can render a deeper include
pattern ineffectual because rsync did not descend through
that excluded section of the hierarchy.

Note also that the --include and --exclude options take one
pattern each. To add multiple patterns use the --include-
from and --exclude-from options or multiple --include and
--exclude options.

The patterns can take several forms. The rules are:

o    if the pattern starts with a / then it is matched
against the start of the filename, otherwise it is
matched against the end of the filename.  This is the
equivalent of a leading ^ in regular expressions.  Thus
"/foo" would match a file called "foo" at the
transfer-root (see above for how this is different from
the filesystem-root).  On the other hand, "foo" would
match any file called "foo" anywhere in the tree
because the algorithm is applied recursively from top
down; it behaves as if each path component gets a turn
at being the end of the file name.

o    if the pattern ends with a / then it will only match a
directory, not a file, link, or device.

o    if the pattern contains a wildcard character from the
set *?[ then expression matching is applied using the
shell filename matching rules. Otherwise a simple
string match is used.

o    the double asterisk pattern "**" will match slashes
while a single asterisk pattern "*" will stop at

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slashes.

o    if the pattern contains a / (not counting a trailing /)
or a "**" then it is matched against the full filename,
including any leading directory. If the pattern doesn't
contain a / or a "**", then it is matched only against
the final component of the filename.  Again, remember
that the algorithm is applied recursively so "full
filename" can actually be any portion of a path below
the starting directory.

o    if the pattern starts with "+ " (a plus followed by a
space) then it is always considered an include pattern,
even if specified as part of an exclude option. The
prefix is discarded before matching.

o    if the pattern starts with "- " (a minus followed by a
space) then it is always considered an exclude pattern,
even if specified as part of an include option. The
prefix is discarded before matching.

o    if the pattern is a single exclamation mark ! then the
current include/exclude list is reset, removing all
previously defined patterns.

The +/- rules are most useful in a list that was read from a
file, allowing you to have a single exclude list that
contains both include and exclude options in the proper
order.

Remember that the matching occurs at every step in the
traversal of the directory hierarchy, so you must be sure
that all the parent directories of the files you want to
include are not excluded.  This is particularly important
when using a trailing '*' rule.  For instance, this won't
work:

+ /some/path/this-file-will-not-be-found
+ /file-is-included
- *

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This fails because the parent directory "some" is excluded
by the '*' rule, so rsync never visits any of the files in
the "some" or "some/path" directories.  One solution is to
ask for all directories in the hierarchy to be included by
using a single rule: --include='*/' (put it somewhere before
the --exclude='*' rule).  Another solution is to add
specific include rules for all the parent dirs that need to
be visited.  For instance, this set of rules works fine:

+ /some/
+ /some/path/
+ /some/path/this-file-is-found
+ /file-also-included
- *

Here are some examples of exclude/include matching:

o    --exclude "*.o" would exclude all filenames matching
*.o

o    --exclude "/foo" would exclude a file called foo in the
transfer-root directory

o    --exclude "foo/" would exclude any directory called foo

o    --exclude "/foo/*/bar" would exclude any file called
bar two levels below a directory called foo in the
transfer-root directory

o    --exclude "/foo/**/bar" would exclude any file called
bar two or more levels below a directory called foo in
the transfer-root directory

o    --include "*/" --include "*.c" --exclude "*" would
include all directories and C source files

o    --include "foo/" --include "foo/bar.c" --exclude "*"
would include only foo/bar.c (the foo/ directory must
be explicitly included or it would be excluded by the
"*")

BATCH MODE
Note: Batch mode should be considered experimental in this
version of rsync. The interface or behavior may change
before it stabilizes.

Batch mode can be used to apply the same set of updates to

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many identical systems. Suppose one has a tree which is
replicated on a number of hosts.  Now suppose some changes
have been made to this source tree and those changes need to
be propagated to the other hosts. In order to do this using
batch mode, rsync is run with the write-batch option to
apply the changes made to the source tree to one of the
destination trees.  The write-batch option causes the rsync
client to store the information needed to repeat this
operation against other destination trees in a batch update
fileset (see below).  The filename of each file in the
fileset starts with a prefix specified by the user as an
argument to the write-batch option.  This fileset is then
copied to each remote host, where rsync is run with the
read-batch option, again specifying the same prefix, and the
destination tree.  Rsync updates the destination tree using
the information stored in the batch update fileset.

The fileset consists of 4 files:

o    <prefix>.rsync_argvs command-line arguments

o    <prefix>.rsync_flist rsync internal file metadata

o    <prefix>.rsync_csums rsync checksums

o    <prefix>.rsync_delta data blocks for file update &
change

The .rsync_argvs file contains a command-line suitable for
updating a destination tree using that batch update fileset.
It can be executed using a Bourne(-like) shell, optionally
passing in an alternate destination tree pathname which is
then used instead of the original path. This is useful when
the destination tree path differs from the original
destination tree path.

Generating the batch update fileset once saves having to
perform the file status, checksum and data block generation
more than once when updating multiple destination trees.
Multicast transport protocols can be used to transfer the
batch update files in parallel to many hosts at once,
instead of sending the same data to every host individually.

Example:

$ rsync --write-batch=pfx -a /source/dir/ /adest/dir/
$ rcp pfx.rsync_* remote:
$ ssh remote rsync --read-batch=pfx -a /bdest/dir/
# or alternatively
$ ssh remote ./pfx.rsync_argvs /bdest/dir/

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In this example, rsync is used to update /adest/dir/ with
/source/dir/ and the information to repeat this operation is
stored in the files pfx.rsync_*. These files are then copied
to the machine named "remote".  Rsync is then invoked on
"remote" to update /bdest/dir/ the same way as /adest/dir/.
The last line shows the rsync_argvs file being used to
invoke rsync.

Caveats:

The read-batch option expects the destination tree it is
meant to update to be identical to the destination tree that
was used to create the batch update fileset.  When a
difference between the destination trees is encountered the
update will fail at that point, leaving the destination tree
in a partially updated state. In that case, rsync can be
used in its regular (non-batch) mode of operation to fix up
the destination tree.

The rsync version used on all destinations should be
identical to the one used on the original destination.

The -z/--compress option does not work in batch mode and
yields a usage error. A separate compression tool can be
used instead to reduce the size of the batch update files
for transport to the destination.

The -n/--dryrun option does not work in batch mode and
yields a runtime error.

See http://www.ils.unc.edu/i2dsi/unc_rsync+.html for papers
and technical reports.

SYMBOLIC LINKS
Three basic behaviors are possible when rsync encounters a
symbolic link in the source directory.

By default, symbolic links are not transferred at all.  A
message "skipping non-regular" file is emitted for any
symlinks that exist.

If --links is specified, then symlinks are recreated with
the same target on the destination.  Note that --archive
implies --links.

If --copy-links is specified, then symlinks are "collapsed"
by copying their referent, rather than the symlink.

rsync also distinguishes "safe" and "unsafe" symbolic links.
An example where this might be used is a web site mirror
that wishes ensure the rsync module they copy does not
include symbolic links to /etc/passwd in the public section

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of the site.  Using --copy-unsafe-links will cause any links
to be copied as the file they point to on the destination.
Using --safe-links will cause unsafe links to be omitted
altogether.

Symbolic links are considered unsafe if they are absolute
symlinks (start with /), empty, or if they contain enough
".."  components to ascend from the directory being copied.

DIAGNOSTICS
rsync occasionally produces error messages that may seem a
little cryptic. The one that seems to cause the most
confusion is "protocol version mismatch - is your shell
clean?".

This message is usually caused by your startup scripts or
remote shell facility producing unwanted garbage on the
stream that rsync is using for its transport. The way to
diagnose this problem is to run your remote shell like this:

ssh remotehost /bin/true > out.dat

then look at out.dat. If everything is working correctly
then out.dat should be a zero length file. If you are
getting the above error from rsync then you will probably
find that out.dat contains some text or data. Look at the
contents and try to work out what is producing it. The most
common cause is incorrectly configured shell startup scripts
(such as .cshrc or .profile) that contain output statements
for non-interactive logins.

If you are having trouble debugging include and exclude
patterns, then try specifying the -vv option.  At this level
of verbosity rsync will show why each individual file is
included or excluded.

EXIT VALUES
0    Success

1    Syntax or usage error

2    Protocol incompatibility

3    Errors selecting input/output files, dirs

4    Requested action not supported: an attempt was made to
manipulate 64-bit files on a platform that cannot

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support them; or an option was specified that is
supported by the client and not by the server.

5    Error starting client-server protocol

10   Error in socket I/O

11   Error in file I/O

12   Error in rsync protocol data stream

13   Errors with program diagnostics

14   Error in IPC code

20   Received SIGUSR1 or SIGINT

21   Some error returned by waitpid()

22   Error allocating core memory buffers

23   Partial transfer due to error

24   Partial transfer due to vanished source files

30   Timeout in data send/receive

ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES

CVSIGNORE
The CVSIGNORE environment variable supplements any
ignore patterns in .cvsignore files. See the --cvs-
exclude option for more details.

RSYNC_RSH
The RSYNC_RSH environment variable allows you to
override the default shell used as the transport for
rsync.  Command line options are permitted after the
command name, just as in the -e option.

RSYNC_PROXY
The RSYNC_PROXY environment variable allows you to
redirect your rsync client to use a web proxy when
connecting to a rsync daemon. You should set
RSYNC_PROXY to a hostname:port pair.

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RSYNC_PASSWORD
Setting RSYNC_PASSWORD to the required password allows
you to run authenticated rsync connections to an rsync
daemon without user intervention. Note that this does
not supply a password to a shell transport such as ssh.

USER or LOGNAME
The USER or LOGNAME environment variables are used to
determine the default username sent to an rsync server.
If neither is set, the username defaults to "nobody".

HOME The HOME environment variable is used to find the
user's default .cvsignore file.

FILES
/etc/rsyncd.conf or rsyncd.conf

SEE ALSO
rsyncd.conf(5)

DIAGNOSTICS
BUGS
times are transferred as unix time_t values

When transferring to FAT filesystems rsync may re-sync
unmodified files.  See the comments on the --modify-window
option.

file permissions, devices, etc. are transferred as native
numerical values

see also the comments on the --delete option

Please report bugs! See the website at
http://rsync.samba.org/

CREDITS
rsync is distributed under the GNU public license.  See the
file COPYING for details.

A WEB site is available at http://rsync.samba.org/.  The
site includes an FAQ-O-Matic which may cover questions
unanswered by this manual page.

The primary ftp site for rsync is
ftp://rsync.samba.org/pub/rsync.

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rsync(1)                  (30 Apr 2004)                  rsync(1)

We would be delighted to hear from you if you like this
program.

This program uses the excellent zlib compression library
written by Jean-loup Gailly and Mark Adler.

THANKS
Thanks to Richard Brent, Brendan Mackay, Bill Waite, Stephen
Rothwell and David Bell for helpful suggestions, patches and
testing of rsync.  I've probably missed some people, my
apologies if I have.

Especial thanks also to: David Dykstra, Jos Backus,
Sebastian Krahmer, Martin Pool, Wayne Davison.

AUTHOR
rsync was originally written by Andrew Tridgell and Paul
Mackerras.  Many people have later contributed to it.

Mailing lists for support and development are available at
http://lists.samba.org

   
© ALLROUNDER